Pedalea como puedas. Por Yago Alcalde.

Yago Alcalde. Licenciado en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte. Máster en Alto Rendimiento Deportivo. Entrenador Nacional de Ciclismo – Ciclismo y Rendimiento

Una cuestión que muchas veces nos plantean los ciclistas que acuden a hacerse un análisis biomecánico es si su técnica de pedaleo es la correcta, lo cual es una pregunta realmente compleja puesto que dicha valoración no es precisamente fácil de medir o cuantificar. A lo largo del siguiente artículo trataremos de explicar de la forma más sencilla posible lo que la ciencia nos aporta sobre este apasionante tema.

Fuerzas positivas y fuerzas negativas

Siempre resulta interesante explicar que no toda la fuerza que se aplica sobre el pedal se traduce en instantáneamente en velocidad. En este sentido, tenemos que hablar de dos tipos de fuerzas: tangenciales y radiales. Las fuerzas tangenciales son las que producen movimiento sobre las bielas, es decir, son las fuerzas que se aplican en sentido transversal a la dirección de la biela. Por otro lado, encontramos también unas fuerzas opuestas que se denominan radiales y que se caracterizan porque no provocan ningún movimiento sobre las bielas al estar dirigidas hacia el centro del eje del pedalier. La suma de las fuerzas tangenciales del pedal derecho e izquierdo multiplicado por la longitud de la biela es lo que se denomina par de fuerza (o torque). Y la potencia total es el resultado de multiplicar el torque por la velocidad angular o la cadencia.

A lo largo de una pedalada completa, la potencia que se produce sobre el pedal varia en función del momento de la misma como podemos ver en el gráfico número 1. Como se puede observar, la máxima potencia se consigue cuando la biela está en 90 grados, es decir, cuando está perpendicular al suelo y tenemos la rodilla justo encima del pedal. En este punto es donde realmente conseguimos aplicar la mayor fuerza útil para propulsar la bici hacia delante. Cuando el pedal llega a la parte inferior de la pedalada, podemos observar que la potencia que estamos produciendo es más bien poca, lo cual es lógico si nos paramos a pensar en la posición del pie en ese punto de la pedalada. La parte del gráfico que normalmente causa más asombro es la que va desde los 180 hasta los 360 grados, es decir, cuando se analiza lo que sucede en la fase en la que el pedal está en ascenso. Durante la mayor parte de esta fase, la potencia que se genera sobre el pedal es negativa, es decir, se está frenando la biela por muy bien que se pedalee. A no ser que estemos tirando del pedal hacia arriba de forma de forma activa, siempre dejamos cierto peso sobre el pedal que frena la fuerza que la pierna contraria está haciendo hacia abajo. Así pues, la potencia que generamos sobre cada pedal es el resultado de la potencia que generamos cuando el pedal está bajando menos la potencia que perdemos cuando el pedal está subiendo.

Teniendo en mente este concepto, podríamos pensar de una forma totalmente teórica que se podría pedalear a la misma potencia de infinitas maneras en función de cómo distribuyamos la potencia en cada pedalada. Los dos extremos serían: aplicar muchísima fuerza en la bajada del pedal y relajarnos del todo en la subida o relajarnos en la bajada y tirar con fuerza del pedal en la subida. O una cosa intermedia: empujar y tirar del pedal con la misma fuerza para crear una distribución de la potencia homogénea durante todo el ciclo. Entre estos dos extremos, ¿qué es lo mejor? ¿Un pedaleo más bien homogéneo o un pedaleo más a pistonazos? Y lo que es realmente importante es: ¿a qué nos referimos cuando decimos “lo mejor”? Vayamos un poco más lejos…

Eficiencia

Si decimos que un ciclista pedalea mejor que otro, ¿a qué nos estamos refiriendo realmente? Aquí entra en juego el concepto de eficiencia, así como producción máxima de potencia. Y es que ambas suenan bien, ¿no? Veamos que significan cada una de ellas.

La eficiencia es la relación entre el gasto energético y la potencia generada, es decir, cuanta energía gastamos cuando estamos pedaleando. Un ciclista muy poco eficiente sería aquel que, por ejemplo, hiciese mucha fuerza vertical cuando el pedal está abajo del todo, ya que, aunque está aplicando mucha fuerza sobre el pedal no está generando una fuerza tangencial sino radial. Recordemos que la fuerza tangencial es aquella que imprime movimiento a la biela, al contrario que la fuerza radial. En este caso, este ciclista es poco eficiente porque está gastando mucha energía que no se está traduciendo en generar movimiento. Aunque la forma precisa de medir eficiencia es a base de medir el consumo de oxígeno, podemos hacernos una idea sobre la eficiencia si observamos la relación entre la frecuencia cardiaca y la potencia producida. De esta forma, llegamos a la conclusión de que conseguir una pedalada eficiente es el objetivo número 1, ya que nos va a permitir reducir el gasto energético y por lo tanto nos fatigaremos menos cuando estamos pedaleando a intensidades submáximas, es decir, cuando no vamos a tope, que es casi siempre.

Sin embargo, cuando el objetivo es pedalear a la máxima intensidad posible, lo que nos interesa es conseguir la máxima potencia sin tener en cuenta el gasto energético o el coste metabólico. En este contexto, el concepto de la mejor técnica de pedaleo cambia mucho, ya que entran en acción otros músculos.

¿Se puede mejorar la técnica de pedaleo?

Valorar la eficiencia de pedaleo de un ciclista supone una tarea muy compleja, ya que no solo supone medir de forma independiente la producción de potencia de cada pierna, sino que también requeriría la medición del consumo máximo de oxígeno empleando diferentes técnicas de pedaleo. Al respecto, se han hecho múltiples estudios en los que se ha analizado la eficiencia del pedaleo de varias maneras. Se ha estudiado que el 85% de la potencia la producen los músculos extensores de la cadera (glúteos predominantemente), extensores de la rodilla (cuádriceps) y flexores plantares (gemelos y sóleo). Estos músculos están diseñados específicamente para producir grandes niveles de fuerza de forma eficiente. Los flexores de la rodilla (isquiotibiales) tan solo aportan en torno al 10% de la potencia total producida, entre otras cosas porque son músculos relativamente débiles e ineficientes. Cuando un ciclista pedalea sin pensar, el sistema nervioso central escoge de forma automática una técnica de pedaleo eficiente. En este sentido, cuando voluntariamente se cambia la forma de pedalear, lo normal es que la eficiencia disminuya. Por ejemplo, si se trata de pedalear más en círculos a base de tirar hacia arriba de los pedales, el aumento de la actividad de los ineficientes isquiotibiales (músculos de la parte trasera del muslo) se traduce en una técnica de pedaleo menos eficiente. De igual forma, en otro estudio pidieron a los ciclistas que pedaleasen manteniendo el pie más de punta e igualmente se observó que era menos eficiente.

A la luz de estas observaciones y basándonos en nuestra experiencia, no aconsejamos a los ciclistas que modifiquen su técnica de pedaleo a no ser que observemos algún patrón de movimiento que pueda estar causando algún tipo de lesión o cuando dicha técnica se aleje en gran medida de lo que sería una técnica de pedaleo estándar. Algunas bicis estáticas, algunos rodillos o algunos medidores de potencia proporcionan valores de efectividad de pedaleo que promueven una aplicación de fuerzas homogénea a lo largo del ciclo de la pedalada, es decir, el pedaleo redondo o la eliminación de puntos muertos. Al respecto, señalar que no existe evidencia científica que soporte la idea de alterar la técnica de pedaleo para mejorar la eficiencia por lo que la información que nos proporcionan estos dispositivos debe ser interpretada con ciertas cautelas.

Volviendo al gráfico 1, podríamos resumir que la forma de optimizar la técnica de pedaleo sería a base de minimizar la potencia negativa que se produce en la fase ascendente de la pedalada, es decir, tratando de quitar peso del pedal que sube pero sin llegar a tirar hacia arriba del pedal.

Simetría

Por defecto, tendemos a asociar simetría de pedaleo con perfección, lo cual no está demostrado científicamente. Además, dicha simetría solo se puede medir con medidores de potencia que midan ambos pedales bielas de forma independiente. Existen medidores de potencia localizados en la araña que ofrecen datos de simetría cuya precisión es cuestionable por la forma en la que se obtienen los datos. Esta medición se denomina balance. Estos dispositivos, dividen la pedalada en dos: cuando el pedal derecho está bajando y cuando el pedal izquierdo está bajando. La potencia que mide cuando el pedal derecho está bajando la denomina la potencia de la pierna derecha, lo cual es erróneo, ya que es la suma de la potencia de la derecha, así como la potencia que se produce sobre la biela izquierda cuando esta está subiendo. De este modo, si un sistema de este tipo nos dice que producimos más potencia con la pierna derecha quizá lo que esté sucediendo es que la pierna izquierda es capaz de aligerar mejor el peso cuando el pedal está subiendo.

Cuando se ha correlacionado simetría con eficiencia, no se ha encontrado relación entre ellas, por lo que no se puede afirmar que ser más simétrico no es sinónimo de ser más eficiente, y por lo tanto, buscar la simetría en la pedalada puede que no tenga mucho sentido a no ser que haya lesiones que puedan derivarse de dicha asimetría.

Otra limitación importante del análisis de la técnica es que esta se va a ver afectada principalmente por 4 variables: intensidad, cadencia, velocidad y fatiga. Esto quiere decir que lo que podamos observar o medir a una intensidad o a una cadencia determinada a lo mejor no tiene nada que ver cuando cambian estas circunstancias, y por lo tanto, es difícil crear un protocolo o tener una referencia clara sobre cuál es la mejor técnica de pedaleo.

Así pues, el resumen de este artículo es que pedalees como puedas…Si vas cómodo y no tienes lesiones es muy probable que estés pedaleando correctamente. En este sentido, lo que solemos observar es que cuando la posición del ciclista es la correcta en cuanto a colocación de calas, así como altura y retroceso de sillín casi todos los ciclistas son capaces de pedalear correctamente de forma automática ya que nuestro cuerpo siempre va a ir en busca de la mayor eficiencia con el objetivo de gastar menos energía.

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    Ücretsiz instagram takipçi hilesi, instagram beğeni hilesi, instagram canlı yayın ve hikaye
    hilelerinizi platformumuzda bulabilirsiniz. İnstagram takipçi hilesi sistemimizden her
    saat +200 kredi kazanabilirsiniz. Tamamı yüzde yüz gerçek kullanıcılardan olup bot hesaplarımız bulunmamaktadır.
    İnstagram takipçi hilesi ve beğeni özelliğini kullanarak hızlı bir şekilde keşfet olarak adlandırılan bölüme
    düşebilirsiniz. Üstelik tamamı ücretsiz.

  47. I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your website.
    It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and
    visit more often. Did you hire out a designer to
    create your theme? Outstanding work!

  48. Google sıra bulucu ile web sitenizin Google’da kaçıncı sırada olduğunuzu öğrenebilirsiniz.

    Türkiye’nin 81 ilinde arama yapabilir, lokasyon uyumlu bir şekilde DOĞRU sonucu öğrenebilirsiniz.

    Ücretsiz bir aracımızdır, her gün dahada geliştiriyoruz ve yeniliyoruz.

    Siz değerli kullanıcılarımız için ilerleyen zamanlarda kullanım konusunda daha uygun hale getireceğiz.

    Şimdiden google sıra bulucuyu kullanan arkadaşlarımıza hayırlı olsun diyorum.

  49. Köpek Eğitimi
    İstanbul’da güvenilir ve kaliteli eğitimleri hayat felsefesi edinen uzman kadro ile
    sayısız hizmetimizden yararlanan binlerce kişi bulunmaktadır.
    Köpek eğitimi sabır ve disiplin ile gerçekleşen bir zaman sürecine sahiptir.

    Köpeklerde eğitim kulvarları ve eğitim süreçlerimiz keyifli ve
    eğlenceli geçmektedir. İstanbul merkezli köpek eğitimi başlıca akıllara gelen ilk soru köpek tuvalet eğitimi
    ile başlanmaktadır. Bir çok kişinin sorusu genelde yavru köpek eğitimi ile beraber yetişkin hayvanlarımızın eğitime ne kadar uyumlu olup olmadığıdır.
    Gelin hep beraber hayat yoldaşlarımıza yol gösterelim.
    Unutmayın ki eğitim hayatımızın her yerinde bulunmaktadır.

    Köpek eğitim fiyatları denildiğinde lükse kaçıyor düşüncesi ile insanların aklına kazınmıştır,
    lakin biz siz değerli köpek severlerimize kolaylık ve uygun fiyatlar sunuyoruz.
    Eğitimlerimizin yanı sıra seyehat sırasında akraba, eş dost, komşularımız
    gibi yakın gördüklerimize bu tatlı can arkadaşlarımızı emanet edip gidiyoruz,
    aman birşey mi oldu ?, acaba yemek yedi mi ?,
    hasta mı ? vb.. bir çok soru aklımıza geliyor.
    Biz sizler için köpek eğitimi hizmetinin yanı sıra
    köpek oteli olarak da hizmet veriyoruz.

    köpek eğitim merkezi
    İstanbul’da istediğiniz gibi tesislerimizi gezebilir,görebilir ve konaklama sağlıyabilirsiniz.
    Kalite, Güven, Huzur, Temizlik köpek eğitim
    merkezimizin başlıca kurallarıdır.

    Huzur veren bu canlıları sevmek, korumak, sahiplenmek biz hayvan severler olarak mutluluğa işte bukadar yakınız.

    Metropol hayatının bize vermiş olduğu bu stresli günlerin sonunda eve geldiğimizde bize
    doğru koşan ya da bahçemizde sizi gördüğünde üstünüze atlayıp sizi
    seven hayat ortaklarımıza eğitim konusunda sonuna kadar sizlerin arkasındayız.

    Hayat boyu eğitim, hayat boyu disiplin diyelim ve sizleri
    İstanbul köpek eğitimi merkezine davet edelim.

    Köpek Eğitim Fiyatları
    Fiyatlarımız vermiş olduğumuz hizm ile karşılaştığında cok küçük rakamlar haline geliyor neden peki ?, çünkü istiyoruz ki duyarlı ve hayvan dostu insanların bu konuda elimizden geldiğince kolaylık sağlamak.
    Yüzlerce eğitim programlarımız bulunmaktadır.
    Sizin için en ideal olanları uzman arkadaşlarımız ile gelin beraber belirliyelim ve mutlu bir sıcak yuva
    ortamı ile köpeğiniz ile güzel günler geçirin.

  50. Köpeklerde eğitim kulvarları ve eğitim süreçlerimiz keyifli ve eğlenceli geçmektedir.
    İstanbul merkezli köpek eğitimi başlıca akıllara gelen ilk soru köpek tuvalet eğitimi ile başlanmaktadır.

    Bir çok kişinin sorusu genelde yavru köpek eğitimi ile beraber yetişkin hayvanlarımızın eğitime ne kadar uyumlu
    olup olmadığıdır. Gelin hep beraber hayat yoldaşlarımıza yol gösterelim.
    Unutmayın ki eğitim hayatımızın her yerinde bulunmaktadır.

  51. Emekli maaşı hesaplama yaparken prim ödeme miktarı çok önemli bir noktadır.
    Yüksek ve uzun süreli prim ödeyen kişiler diğer
    kişilere oranla daha fazla maaş aldığı bilinmektedir.
    Ocak ve Temmuz aylarında yaşanan enflasyon farkından dolayı maaşlar iki defa
    zam olmuştu. Emekli maaşlarının yatırılma noktasında ise emeklilerin istediği bankaya yatırıldığı bilgisini de verebiliriz.
    Şimdi emeklilerin nasıl bir hesaplama işlemleri sayesinde
    ne kadar para alacağını beraber öğrenelim.

    Emeklilik maaşı hesaplama Emeklilerin özellikle beklediği zam haberleri geldi.
    Artık maaşlar eskiye oranla zamlandı. Bunun sonucunda binlerce emekli hesap yapmalara
    başladı. 2020 yılında maaşlarının ne olacağını ne ve ne kadar ücret
    alacaklarını hesaplamaya çalışan emeklilere bu yazımızda nasıl bir hesap işlemi yapabileceklerini
    açıklayacağız.

  52. Ailenize yeni bir evcil hayvan mı dahil ettiniz? Peki ya küçük dostunuzu nasıl eğitmeniz gerektiği konusunda bilgi sahibi değil misiniz?
    İşte bu yazımız tam size göre! Yavruluktan yetişkinliğe kadar giden bu uzun yolculuğu beraber atlatacağız.
    Köpeğinizin doğru bir eğitim alması, siz ve çevreniz için en önemli şey olacaktır.
    Yavru köpek eğitimi ve yetişkin köpek eğitimi
    hakkında merak edilen tüm soruları araştırdık.
    Köpeğinizin her daim sadık, sevgi dolu ve sevecen tavırlara sahip
    olması için, yavru köpek eğitimi alması gerektiğini unutmayınız.
    Köpeğinizin doğru bir eğitim alması için 21 adımda yavru köpek
    eğitimi sizlerde!

  53. Elektrikli Süpürge Alırken Nelere Dikkat Edilmelidir?

    Elektrikli süpürge modelleri evin temizlik açısından en önemli gereçlerinden birisi hatta en önemlisidir
    diyebiliriz. Pratik kullanışlı ve güçlü bir makine hayatınızı
    kurtarabilir. Bu içeriğimizde 2020’nin en iyi
    elektrikli süpürge modellerini inceleyeceğiz fakat öncelikle elektrikli süpürge alırken nelere
    dikkat etmeniz gerektiğinden bahsetmek istiyoruz.

    Watt Gücü
    Elektrikli süpürge modelleri Watt gücü bir makinenin iyi performansının göstergesi
    değildir. Güç daha çok kullanılan elektriğin miktarı
    ile ilgilidir. Güç kavramı ve performans her zaman karıştırılmaktadır.
    Oysa Watt ve airwatt elektrikli süpürgenin toz çekim gücünü değil motor gücünü göstermektedir.
    Bu sebeple elektrikli süpürge alırken çekim gücüne
    dikkat etmak gerekmektedir.

  54. altın gram fiyatı Gram altın, daha çok yatırım yapmak amacıyla alınan altın türüdür.
    Gram altın fiyatı, daha çok alışveriş yapmak isteyenler veya kısa
    süreli olarak yatırım yapıp altının gramı kaç tl kazanç sağlamak isteyenlerin sorguladıkları bir kavramdır.
    Günün her dakikasında değişen fiyatların olması, altın piyasasında kazanmak isteyenler için önemli bir
    kapıdır.

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